Tolvaptan is a selective vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist that binds to the receptor with a greater affinity than the arginine vasopressin found in the body. This causes an increase in urine excretion resulting in increased aquaresis, decreased urine osmolarity and increased serum sodium levels.
Care should be taken in patients with diabetes mellitus, urinary outflow obstruction and those at risk of demyelinisation syndromes. Fluid and electrolyte status should be closely monitored.
Further information: Otsuka