Travellers should be up to date with routinely recommended vaccinations according to the routine UK immunisation programme.
Vaccination could be considered for travellers whose activities put them at increased risk, including those visiting friends and relatives, and frequent or long-stay travellers to areas where sanitation and food hygiene are likely to be poor.
Vaccination recommended for all previously unvaccinated travellers. Hepatitis A vaccine is well tolerated and affords long-lasting protection.
Vaccination recommended for travellers whose activities or medical history put them at increased risk, including those who may have unprotected sex, those who may be exposed to contaminated needles (eg, through injecting drug use or receiving medical or dental care), those who may be exposed to blood or body fluids through their work (eg, health workers), long-stay travellers, those who are participating in contact sports and families adopting children from this country.Immunisation should be considered for all travellers and is recommended for those at higher risk, eg, travellers participating in risk behaviours such as needle sharing, unprotected sex or contact sports, those receiving medical/dental treatment, healthcare workers and long-stay travellers.
Vaccination recommended for travellers who are at increased risk due to their work (eg, health workers or those working with animals).
Vaccination recommended for travellers visiting affected areas whose activities put them at increased risk, including those working in forestry, woodcutting, farming and the military and travellers to forested areas typically during spring to late autumn (eg, campers, hikers, hunters and individuals who undertake fieldwork).
International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP) required if arriving from a country with a risk of yellow fever transmission.
- applies to travellers from 12 months of age.
If a receiving country requires an ICVP as a condition of entry, and the individual should not receive the vaccine on medical grounds, a letter of medical exemption can be considered.
Travellers should have completed a primary vaccination course according to the UK schedule. If travelling to a country where medical facilities may be limited, a booster dose of a tetanus-containing vaccine is recommended if the last dose was more than ten years ago even if five doses of vaccine have been given previously.